İçeriğe atla


The 2023 State of CSS survey ran from June 15 to July 15 2023, and collected 9,108 responses. The survey is run by Devographics, with help from a team of open-source contributors and consultants.

The State of CSS logo and t-shirt were designed and animated by Christopher Kirk-Nielsen.

Survey Goals

This survey, along with the State of JavaScript survey, was created to identify upcoming trends in the web development ecosystem in order to help developers make technological choices.

As such, these surveys are focused on anticipating what's coming over the next few years rather than analyzing what's popular now, which is why the features or technologies that are currently most widespread are not always included.

Additionally, survey data is also used by browser vendors to prioritize features and inform initiatives such as Interop 2023.

Survey Design

This year, survey design was lead by Chen Hui Jing thanks to a funding grant from the Google Chrome team. All survey questions were optional.

Survey Audience

The survey was openly accessible online and respondents were not filtered or selected in any way. Respondents were primarily a mix of respondents from past surveys (alerted through a dedicated mailing list) and social media traffic.

Project Funding

Funding from this project comes from a variety of sources:

  • T-shirt sales.
  • Sponsored Links: the links to recommended resources at the bottom of each page are provided by our partner Frontend Masters.
  • Sponsored Charts: starting last year, anybody can now also choose to directly sponsor a chart for $10 or more, and get their Twitter avatar displayed next to it.
  • Google: this year, the Google Chrome team set aside a budget to hire Lea to help design the survey, as well as funded me directly to help support my work.
  • Nijibox: Japan-based Nijibox has also graciously accepted to sponsor my efforts to help make these yearly surveys more sustainable.

Technical Overview

You can find a more in-depth technical overview of how the surveys are run here. Our code is open-source.